© 2019 by Rabbi David Paskin

JPaL is a program of Temple Sinai of North Dade
Call Us: 305-932-9012   /   rabbi.david@tsnd.org   /  18801 NE 22nd Ave, Miami, FL 33180

Welcome to the Kochavim online learning page for JPaL. We're glad you're here. Each month we tackle a different unit of study.

September - Renewal/Yamim Noraim

October - Lifelong Learning/Talmud Torah

November - Holiness/Shabbat

December - Miracles/Hanukkah

January - Living Jewishly

February - Joy/Purim

March - Freedom/Pesach

April - Hope/Israel

 

Throughout the year we also learn Hebrew, participate in t'fillah (prayer) and celebrate middot (Jewish values/character traits.)

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Enduring Understandings: Students will understand that...

  • Jews build community through holiday observance and ritual celebrations.

  • Jewish life is best lived in community.

  • The Jewish holidays teach us to appreciate the many cycles of renewal and rebirth.

Essential Questions:

What do you think?

  • What are some of the important lessons from these Jewish holidays?

  • How does the idea that Jews everywhere celebrate these same holidays connect me to the Jewish community?

Demonstrate proper use of the holiday symbols and ritual items

Now that you know what each symbol is and its Hebrew name, now we need to learn how to use them. Don't forget to make a blessing!

Learn how to blow שׁוֹפַר.

Learn how to shake לוּלָב וְאֶתְרוֹג.

Learn how to build a סֻכָּה.

Draw connections between the holiday narrative/big ideas and the ritual practices of the holiday

You know the story behind the יָמִים נוֹרָאִים and you know the rituals that we do on these days. Now it's time to make some connections.

connect the dots.png

Connect the holiday narrative with the season/timing of the holiday

In the spring, when פֶּסַח falls we celebrate new beginnings. We ask for the blessing of rain to water our crops so that new fruits and vegetables can grow. We ask for this in the spring but we won't know if our prayers are answered until the fall when we go out and pick the fruit and collect the vegetables. The יָמִים נוֹרָאִים are a sign that God does answer our prayers. 

So now, why do you think רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, יוֹם כִּפּוּר and סֻכּוֹת are celebrated in the fall? What in the stories of these holidays connects with this time of year? What prayers are we hoping will be answered on these days?

Use appropriate holiday vocabulary in proper context and demonstrate understanding of their meanings

You've learned a whole bunch of Hebrew words for these holidays. You know the names of the holidays in Hebrew, the names of the symbols and the holiday greetings. When you speak about this holiday with your family and friends, can you use all of these Hebrew words? Here are some of the Hebrew words you know related to the יָמִים נוֹרָאִים:

Holiday Names

יָמִים נוֹרָאִים - High Holy Days
רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה - Rosh Hashanah
יוֹם תְּרוּעָה - Yom T'ruah
יוֹם כִּפּוּר - Yom Kippur

סֻכּוֹת - Sukkot

Holiday Greetings

חַג שָׂמֵחַ - Happy Holidays
שָׁנָה טוֹבָה וּמְתוּקָה - A Good and Sweet New Year

גְּמָר טוֹב - May it be a good end of the year

צוֹם קַל - Have an easy fast

גְּמַר חֲתִימָה טוֹבָה - May you be sealed for goodness
מוֹעֲדִים לְשִׂמְחָה...חַגִּים וּזְמַנִּים לְשָׂשׂוֹן - Happy times for festivals

Holiday Symbols

שׁוֹפַר - Shofar
קִיטְל - Kitel
רִמוֹן - Pomegranate
תְּשׁוּבָה - Repentance
תַּפּוּחִים וּדְבַשׁ - Apples and Honey
לוּלָב וְאֶתְרוֹג - Lulav and Etrog
סֻכָּה - Sukkah
תּוֹרָה - Torah

Read the b’rachot associated with the holiday symbols and ritual items along with selected liturgical pieces and will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the key words of those b'rachot and t'fillot

You already know how to say or sing lots of blessings and prayers for the יָמִים נוֹרָאִים. Now it's time to look at them more closely and put your Hebrew reading skills to work. It's tempting to just say the blessings and prayers by heart but challenge yourself to really try and read them. In fact, see if you can read them forwards and backwards!

Read this t'fillah for רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה:

אָבִֽינוּ מַלְכֵּֽנוּ חָנֵּֽנוּ וַעֲנֵֽנוּ כִּי אֵין בָּֽנוּ מַעֲשִׂים עֲשֵׂה עִמָּֽנוּ צְדָקָה וָחֶֽסֶד וְהוֹשִׁיעֵֽנוּ

 

Read these blessings on סֻכּוֹת

For sitting in the סֻכָּה:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוׂתָיו, וְצִוָּנוּ לִישֵׁב בַּסֻּכָּה:

For shaking the לוּלָב וְאֶתְרוֹג:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוׂתָיו, וְצִוָּנוּ עַל נְטִילַת לוּלָב:

When you are sitting in the סֻכָּה or shaking לוּלָב וְאֶתְרוֹג for the first time each year:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ וְקִיְּמָנוּ וְהִגִּיעָנוּ לַזְמַן הַזֶּה:

When you can read all of the words of the b'rachot (blessings) take our Build-a-Blessing challenge. 

Categorize holiday rituals as mitzvah or minhag

Since you already know what a מִצְוָה and a מִנְהָג are, now we can think about some of the holiday rituals and decide if they are a מִצְוָה or a מִנְהָג. Here's a hint for deciding what's a מִצְוָה: Most mitzvot have a blessing that includes the words, "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ", which means, "You make us holy through your commandments and command us to..."

מִנְהָג

Custom

מִצְוָה

Commandment

PlayNow.png

Draw conclusions about the values associated with each holiday based on the holiday narrative and ritual practices

Think about the holiday story and rituals that you've learned about. What values do they teach us? For example: Maybe reflecting on the choices we made over the past year teaches us about having courage. What conclusions can you draw about the values that might be associated with each holiday based on the story and rituals?

Middot Chart.jpg
  • Create an instructional video on how to use the different symbols

  • Create a giant size version of one of the holiday symbols out of creative materials and write the big idea it presents inside the symbol

  • Create a diorama for the holiday using natural materials that celebrate its season

  • Create a video showing how the holiday is celebrated incorporating vocabulary

  • Create a poster for each b'racha including the full Hebrew and highlighting the key words

 

Enduring Understandings: Students will understand that...

  • The Torah is the collective story of the Jewish people and teaches me how to be a part of the Jewish people.

  • The Jewish people began as a family and grew into a nation.

Essential Questions:

What do you think?

  • Who are some of the important characters in the Bible, what are their stories, and why are they important in my life and in my family’s life?

  • How am I like the people in the story and how am I different?

  • What values can I learn from these characters?

  • What are some of the challenges that the families in the Torah face?

Sequence the five books of the תּוֹרָה in Hebrew and English

The תּוֹרָה contains the Five Books of Moses. These five books בְּרֵאשִׁית, שְׁמוֹת, וַיִּקְרָא, בַּמִּדְבָּר, דְּבָרִים (B'reisheet, Sh'mot, Vayikra, Bamidbar and Devarim) tell the story of the Creation of the world and the birth of the Jewish people. Each book has a Hebrew and English name. What do these Hebrew and English names tell you about each book? 

Deuteronomy

5

Numbers

4

Leviticus

3

Exodus

2

Genesis

1

Describe how the parshiot of the תּוֹרָה are categorized into five books

Each week we read a different portion from the תּוֹרָה scroll. Each portion is called a פָּרָשָׁה (Parsha). There are 54 parshiot (portions) in the תּוֹרָה split up amongst the five books. Have you ever heard of any of these parshiot? The words at the top mean, "The Five Books of the תּוֹרָה."

Parshiot.png

Identify the מְעִיל, יַד, כֶּתֶר, חֲגוֹרָה, עֲצֵי חַיִּים

There are lots of special items of "clothing" that the תּוֹרָה is dressed in.

יַד
The יַד (Yad) is the pointer used so that our hands don't touch the letters of the Torah.
מְעִיל
The מְעִיל (Me'il) is the covering for the Torah.
כֶּתֶר
The כֶּתֶר (Keter) is the crown that goes on top of the Torah.
עֲצֵי חַיִּים
The עֲצֵי חַיִּים are the two rollers around which the scroll is wrapped. We use them to hold the Torah.
חֲגורָה
The חֲגורָה (Chagura) is the belt that holds the Torah together when it is not being read.

See if you can use all of these words properly in our Torah Mad Libs.

Lift and dress the תּוֹרָה (hagbah and gelilah)

In the book of Nehemiah (which is in the TaNaKh or Bible) we learn that the scribe Ezra "opened the book in the sight of all the people” (Neh. 8:5) The "book" he opened was the Torah. This is why, after we read from the תּוֹרָה, we lift it so everyone can see what we just read. This lifting is called הַגְבָּהָה (Hagbah.) After we lift the תּוֹרָה it's time to dress it back in its special  כֶּתֶר ,מְעִיל ,חֲגוֹרָה (belt, cover and crown). The dressing of the תּוֹרָה is called גְּלִילָה.

Learn how to lift and dress the תּוֹרָה

Distinguish between תּוֹרָה narrative and interpretation in selected texts

Sometimes it's hard to tell what part of a story is from the תּוֹרָה and what is an interpretation by the rabbis. An interpretation is a teaching that tries to explain the meaning of particular text. An interpretation can also fill in the gaps in a story if details are missing.

Here's an example: In the תּוֹרָה, we read that just before Moses dies, at the end of the תּוֹרָה, "God showed Moses the whole land of Israel." There are a bunch of questions this verse raises like, how did God do this - Israel is small but not that small - it's a whole country! How could Moses have seen the whole land from the top of one mountain?

An interpreter (or commentator) named Or Hachayim who lived in the 1700's says that God gave Moses supernatural eyesight so he could see the whole land. Or Hachayim didn't see this supernatural eyesight in the text of the תּוֹרָה but he added it as an interpretation to help us understand what the תּוֹרָה meant when it said that God "showed Moses the whole land of Israel."

Think of stories that you've learned about the תּוֹרָה. Do you know how much of those stories is actually in the תּוֹרָה and how much is interpretation? Can you look up those stories in the תּוֹרָה and find out?

 

Enduring Understandings: Students will understand that...

  • Jews build community through holiday observance and ritual celebrations.

  • Jewish life is best lived in community.

  • The Jewish holidays teach us to appreciate the many cycles of renewal and rebirth.

Essential Questions:

What do you think?

  • What are some of the important lessons from these Jewish holidays?

  • How does the idea that Jews everywhere celebrate these same holidays connect me to the Jewish community?

Demonstrate proper use of the holiday symbols and ritual items

Now that you know what each symbol is and its Hebrew name, now we need to learn how to use them. The video below has the blessings written in English but you know how to read them in Hebrew!

:Start with the candle lighting

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ לְהַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁל שַׁבָּת.

Next is kiddush:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ. אֱלהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעולָם בּורֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן:

Now wash your hands:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעולָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְותָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל נְטִילַת יָדַיּם:

Finally Hamotzi:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ

Draw connections between the holiday narrative/big ideas and the ritual practices of the holiday

You know the story behind שַׁבָּת and you know the rituals that we do each week on שַׁבָּת. Now it's time to make some connections.

connect the dots.png

Connect the holiday narrative with the season/timing of the holiday

Numbers can magical in Judaism and some numbers are really special. The number 7 is one of those numbers.

  • There are 7 words in the very first verse of the תּוֹרָה

  • There are seven Patriarchs (fathers) and matriarchs (mothers) - Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, Jacob, Rachel and Lean.

  • סֻכּוֹת and פֶּסַח are each seven days long

  • The menorah in the Temple has seven branches

  • There are seven wedding blessings

  • We mourn for seven days after the death of a close relative

And most importantly, 7 is the number of שַׁבָּת. It's the number of completion because God finished all of God's work on the 7th day - שַׁבָּת! If שַׁבָּת is the last day of Creation and we celebrate שַׁבָּת on Saturday, that must mean that the first day of the week is Sunday.

Use appropriate holiday vocabulary in proper context and demonstrate understanding of their meanings

You've learned a whole bunch of Hebrew words for שַׁבָּת. You know the names of שַׁבָּת in Hebrew, the names of the symbols and the שַׁבָּת greetings. When you speak about שַׁבָּת with your family and friends, can you use all of these Hebrew words? Here are some of the Hebrew words you know related to שַׁבָּת:

Holiday Names

שַׁבָּת - Shabbat - Day of Rest

Holiday Greetings

שַׁבָּת שָׁלוֹם - A Peaceful Shabbat
גוּט שַׁבָּת - Have a good Shabbat

Holiday Symbols

כּוֹס יַיִן - Kiddush cup
חָלָה - Challah
נֵרוֹת - Candles
פָּמוֹט - Candle sticks

Read the b’rachot associated with the holiday symbols and ritual items along with selected liturgical pieces and will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the key words of those b'rachot and t'fillot

Shabbat begins on Friday evenings. We light two candles, drink wine or grape juice and share challah. Practice the blessings so you can help make Shabbat beautiful with your whole family.

:Start with the candle lighting

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ לְהַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁל שַׁבָּת.

Next is kiddush:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ. אֱלהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעולָם בּורֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן:

Now wash your hands:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעולָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְותָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל נְטִילַת יָדַיּם:

Finally Hamotzi:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ

When you can read all of the words of the b'rachot (blessings) take our Build-a-Blessing challenge. 

Categorize holiday rituals as mitzvah or minhag

Since you already know what a מִצְוָה and a מִנְהָג are, now we can think about some of the שַׁבָּת rituals and decide if they are a מִצְוָה or a מִנְהָג.  Here's a hint for deciding what's a מִצְוָה: Most mitzvot have a blessing that includes the words, "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ", which means, "You make us holy through your commandments and command us to..."

מִנְהָג

Custom

מִצְוָה

Commandment

PlayNow.png

Draw conclusions about the values associated with each holiday based on the holiday narrative and ritual practices

Think about the story of שַׁבָּת and the שַׁבָּת rituals that you've learned about. What values do they teach us? For example: Perhaps not working on שַׁבָּת can teach us to appreciate beauty or to value perspective. What conclusions can you draw about the values that might be associated with שַׁבָּת based on the story and rituals?

Middot Chart.jpg
 
 

Enduring Understandings: Students will understand that...

  • Jews build community through holiday observance and ritual celebrations.

  • Jewish life is best lived in community.

  • The Jewish holidays teach us to appreciate the many cycles of renewal and rebirth.

Essential Questions:

What do you think?

  • What are some of the important lessons from these Jewish holidays?

  • How does the idea that Jews everywhere celebrate these same holidays connect me to the Jewish community?

Demonstrate proper use of the holiday symbols and ritual items

Now that you know what each symbol is and its Hebrew name, now we need to learn how to use them. Watch the short video below while you sing the blessings.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם

אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ לְהַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁל חֲנֻכָּה.

 

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם

שֶׁעָשָׂה נִסִּים לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה.

 

On the first night:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם

שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ וְקִיְּמָנוּ וְהִגִּיעָנוּ לַזְּמַן הַזֶּה.

Draw connections between the holiday narrative/big ideas and the ritual practices of the holiday

You know the story of חֲנֻכָּה and you know the rituals that we do to celebrate חֲנֻכָּה. Now it's time to make some connections.

connect the dots.png

Connect the holiday narrative with the season/timing of the holiday

Here's something about חֲנֻכָּה I bet you didn't know. It's actually connected to the holiday of סֻכּוֹת. The story of חֲנֻכָּה is found in two places. The first place is in the Talmud, which is a collection of teachings from the rabbis from about 2000 years ago. The second is in a two-part book called the Book of the Maccabees from about 600 years before the Talmud. 

 

In the חֲנֻכָּה story in the second Book of the Maccabees, there's a letter that the Maccabees wrote to the Jews who were living in Egypt. In that letter they invite everyone to come celebrate “The festival of Sukkot celebrated in the month of Kislev." What's weird about this is that Sukkot is always celebrated in the Hebrew month of Tishrei (around September or October) but in this letter they were inviting people to celebrate Sukkot in the Hebrew month of Kislev, which is when we celebrate חֲנֻכָּה.

 

As it turns out, since the Jews were still battling against the Syrian-Greeks during the month of Tishrei, they couldn't properly celebrate the eight-day holiday of Sukkot (and Shemini Atzeret), which is a Temple holiday. So they postponed Sukkot until after the recapture of Jerusalem and the purification of the Temple. That first year they celebrated Sukkot for eight days in the winter - ever since then we've celebrated Sukkot at its proper time and celebrated Hanukkah in the winter.

Use appropriate holiday vocabulary in proper context and demonstrate understanding of their meanings

You've learned a whole bunch of Hebrew words for חֲנֻכָּה. You know the names of חֲנֻכָּה in Hebrew, the names of the symbols and the חֲנֻכָּה greetings. When you speak about חֲנֻכָּה with your family and friends, can you use all of these Hebrew words? Here are some of the Hebrew words you know related to חֲנֻכָּה:

Holiday Names

חֲנֻכָּה - Chanukah

חַג אוּרִים - The Festival of Lights

Holiday Greetings

חַג שָׂמֵחַ - Happy Holiday
חַג אוּרִים שָׂמֵחַ - Happy Festival of Lights

Holiday Symbols

חֲנֻכִּיָּה - Chanukiyah 
סְבִיבוֹן - Dreidel
לְבִיבוֹת - Latkes
סֻפְגָּנִיּוֹת - Jelly Donuts

Read the b’rachot associated with the holiday symbols and ritual items along with selected liturgical pieces and will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the key words of those b'rachot and t'fillot

There are two blessings we say when lighting the חֲנֻכִּיָּה (three blessings on the first night.) The first blessing thanks God for commanding us to light the חֲנֻכִּיָּה. The second blessing thanks God for all the miracles happening all around us all the time. The third blessing, said only on the first night is the שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ blessing, thanking God for letting us reach this special moment.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ לְהַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁל חֲנֻכָּה.

 

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם שֶׁעָשָׂה נִסִּים לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה.

 

On the first night:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ וְקִיְּמָנוּ וְהִגִּיעָנוּ לַזְּמַן הַזֶּה.

When you can read all of the words of the b'rachot (blessings) take our Build-a-Blessing challenge. 

Categorize holiday rituals as mitzvah or minhag

Since you already know what a מִצְוָה and a מִנְהָג are, now we can think about some of the חֲנֻכָּה rituals and decide if they are a מִצְוָה or a מִנְהָג.  Here's a hint for deciding what's a מִצְוָה: Most mitzvot have a blessing that includes the words, "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ", which means, "You make us holy through your commandments and command us to..."

מִנְהָג

Custom

מִצְוָה

Commandment

PlayNow.png

Draw conclusions about the values associated with each holiday based on the holiday narrative and ritual practices

Think about the story of חֲנֻכָּה and the חֲנֻכָּה rituals that you've learned about. What values do they teach us? For example: Maybe lighting חֲנֻכָּה candles can teach us about the value of optimism. What conclusions can you draw about the values that might be associated with חֲנֻכָּה based on the story and rituals?

Middot Chart.jpg

Enduring Understandings: Students will understand that...

  • Living Jewishly brings the Torah to life

  • Being a Jew makes me unique and special in the world

  • I can see the world through "Jewish eyes" and make good choices guided by Jewish teachings and values

Essential Questions:

What do you think?

  • How do I show gratitude?

  • How does being Jewish make me different than other people?

  • How does being Jewish change the way I behave and act in the world?

Don a tallit with the corresponding blessing and demonstrate understanding of when it is worn

Putting on a טַלִּית is actually really easy. If you are using a smaller טַלִּית that just fits over your shoulders there are just two steps:

1.  Hold the טַלִּית with the עֲטָרָה (the fancy part at the top) facing you and say the blessing:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעולָם. אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְותָיו. וְצִוָּנוּ לְהִתְעַטֵּף בַּצִיצִית

2.  Then, wrap it around yourself. Many wrap it over their head for a few moments, to fully surround themselves in the mitzvah, before settling the tallit back on their shoulders.

If you're wearing a larger טַלִּית that covers your whole body, you begin the same and then grab the sides of the טַלִּית and fold them over your shoulders. 

Demonstrate ability to follow the prayer motions associated with appropriate prayers

Prayer is a full body experience. We don't just pray with our mouths - we pray with our hearts, our heads, our hands, our feet and everything in between. See if you can match the movement to the prayer.

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Demonstrate understanding of tzitzit/tallit and the role they play in prayer and Jewish life

צִיצִית are the strings, or fringes, tied to each of the four corners of a tallit, or prayer shawl. They are widely considered a reminder, not unlike a string around one’s finger, to think of God at all times.

 

צִיצִית fulfill the commandment in בַּמִּדְבָּר chapter 37, in the פָּרָשָׁה called Parshat Shlach:

Speak to the Israelite people and instruct them to make for themselves fringes on the corners of their garments throughout the ages; let them attach a cord of blue to the fringe at each corner. That shall be your fringe; look at it and recall all the commandments of ADONAI and observe them, so that you do not follow your heart and eyes in your lustful urge. Thus you shall be reminded to observe all My commandments and to be holy to your God.

 

The commandment to wear צִיצִית is repeated in the וְאָהַבְתָּ section of the שְׁמַע.

Now let's see what these strings are all about. To do that we're going to do some מִצְוָה Math.

Demonstrate understanding of the commandment against mixing meat and milk

The laws concerning milk and meat are very strict and are written in the Torah. People who keep kosher are very strict when it comes to this rule. They have separate dishes, cutlery and other cooking utensils, separate sinks and tablecloths. (Some people even check their pets’ food to see if it has any mixing of meat and milk).

Food that does not have any meat or milk in it is called ‘pareve’. This means that the food can be eaten with either a meat or a milk meal. Examples include salad and drinks. Salad bowls and drinking glasses can be used with both meat and milk dishes.

After eating meat, many Jews wait a certain amount of time until eating foods containing milk. Some people wait one hour, others wait three hours. Some people wait six hours in between meat and milk.

 

When we eat milk products, they are digested much faster than meat products, so we don’t need to wait very long. The custom is to wait for half an hour after eating milk to eat meat. We are also told to rinse out our mouths with a pareve drink (such as water) before eating dairy.

Now that you know all of this - it's time to put your knowledge to the test.

Read and recite blessings over food including: Hamotzi, pri hagafen, minei m'zonot, shehakol nihiyeh bidvaro, pri ha'adamah, pri ha'eitz

There is so much to be thankful for - especially all of the delicious food we get to eat. Jews show thanks by saying blessings and there are different blessings for different kinds of foods. 

For bread we say:

 בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ

For grape juice we say:

 בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגֶּפֶן

For cookies and other baked treats we say:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת

For vegetables we say:

 בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה

For fruits we say:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ

For everything else we say:

 בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ

Identify key characteristics ofJewish wedding and Jewish funeral rituals

Jewish weddings and funerals can be different than regular weddings and funerals. Watch the videos below to learn more about each.

Learn about Jewish Weddings

Learn about Jewish Funerals

 

Enduring Understandings: Students will understand that...

  • Jews build community through holiday observance and ritual celebrations.

  • Jewish life is best lived in community.

  • The Jewish holidays teach us to appreciate the many cycles of renewal and rebirth.

Essential Questions:

What do you think?

  • What are some of the important lessons from these Jewish holidays?

  • How does the idea that Jews everywhere celebrate these same holidays connect me to the Jewish community?

Demonstrate proper use of the holiday symbols and ritual items

There's really no right way to shake your grogger, send פּוּרִים gifts or dress up in costume. There are some things to know about the reading of the מְגִלָּה.

Draw connections between the holiday narrative/big ideas and the ritual practices of the holiday

You know the story of פּוּרִים and you know the rituals that we do to celebrate פּוּרִים. Now it's time to make some connections.

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Connect the holiday narrative with the season/timing of the holiday

פּוּרִים is celebrated in the Hebrew month of אֲדָר. According to the story, Haman put a bunch of dates in a hat and picked out the 13th day of אֲדָר to be the day on which he would kill all the Jews. But, as we all know, things didn't work out as he planned. We celebrate פּוּרִים on the day after Haman's chosen date. So, פּוּרִים is celebrated on the 14th day of אֲדָר. 

Every few years, in order to keep the holidays of פֶּסַח and סֻכּוֹת in the right seasons we add a whole month to the Jewish calendar. The extra month we add is another אֲדָר. When this happens, we celebrate פּוּרִים in the second month of אֲדָר.

After defeating Haman, the Jews needed to take a break so they postponed פּוּרִים until the following day - the 15th of the month of אֲדָר. Since Shushan was a city surrounded by a large wall - the decision was made that any city surrounded by a wall should celebrate פּוּרִים on the 15th. That's why, even today, פּוּרִים is celebrated a day later in Jerusalem than it is anywhere else - because Jerusalem is a city surrounded by a wall.

Use appropriate holiday vocabulary in proper context and demonstrate understanding of their meanings

You've learned a whole bunch of Hebrew words for פּוּרִים. You know the names of פּוּרִים in Hebrew, the names of the symbols and the פּוּרִים greetings. When you speak about פּוּרִים with your family and friends, can you use all of these Hebrew words? Here are some of the Hebrew words you know related to פּוּרִים:

Holiday Names

פּוּרִים - Purim

Holiday Greetings

חַג שָׂמֵחַ - Happy Holiday
חַג
פּוּרִים שָׂמֵחַ - Happy Festival of Purim

Holiday Symbols

רַעֲשַׁן - Grogger
מְגִלָּה - Scroll of Esther
מִשְׁלוֹחַ מָנוֹת - Purim Gifts 

אָזְנֵי הָמָן - Hamantaschen
מַתָּנוֹת לָאֶבְיוֹנִים - Gifts for the Needy

Read the b’rachot associated with the holiday symbols and ritual items along with selected liturgical pieces and will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the key words of those b'rachot and t'fillot

Here's the עַל הַנִּסִּים that you learned to sing when you were in Nitzanim. Now your challenge is to try and read it.

עַל הַנִּסִּים וְעַל הַפֻּרְקָן וְעַל הַגְּבוּרות וְעַל הַתְּשׁוּעות וְעַל הַמִּלְחָמות שֶׁעָשיתָ לַאֲבותֵינוּ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם בִּזְּמַן הַזֶּה:

Take a closer look at the second word:

Every Hebrew word has a root - 2 or 3 letters that are most important. Knowing the root of a word can help you figure out what it means. Let's find the root of the word הַנִּסִּים. Here are two hints:

  1. The letter "ה" at the beginning means "the" and isn't part of the root.

  2. The letters "ים" at the end makes the word plural so they aren't a part of the root either.

If you take off the "ה" and the "ים" what's left? Does this root word remind you of another Hebrew word you know?

(hint: Think about the סְבִיבוֹן from חֲנֻכָּה. What are the four letters? Are any of the four letters on the סְבִיבוֹן the same as the first letter of this root word? What does that letter on the סְבִיבוֹן and the word it represents mean?)

Categorize holiday rituals as mitzvah or minhag

Since you already know what a מִצְוָה and a מִנְהָג are, now we can think about some of the פּוּרִים rituals and decide if they are a מִצְוָה or a מִנְהָג.  Here's a hint for deciding what's a מִצְוָה: Most mitzvot have a blessing that includes the words, "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ", which means, "You make us holy through your commandments and command us to..."

מִנְהָג

Custom

מִצְוָה

Commandment

PlayNow.png

Draw conclusions about the values associated with each holiday based on the holiday narrative and ritual practices

Think about the story of פּוּרִים and the פּוּרִים rituals that you've learned about. What values do they teach us? For example: Maybe dressing up on פּוּרִים teaches us the value of Humor. What conclusions can you draw about the values that might be associated with פּוּרִים based on the story and rituals?

Middot Chart.jpg
 

Enduring Understandings: Students will understand that...

  • Jews build community through holiday observance and ritual celebrations.

  • Jewish life is best lived in community.

  • The Jewish holidays teach us to appreciate the many cycles of renewal and rebirth.

Essential Questions:

What do you think?

  • What are some of the important lessons from these Jewish holidays?

  • How does the idea that Jews everywhere celebrate these same holidays connect me to the Jewish community?

Demonstrate proper use of the holiday symbols and ritual items

Check out our interactive קְעָרָה (Seder plate) and see if you know the names of all of the symbols and how we use them during the סֵדֶר.

seder plate.jpg

Draw connections between the holiday narrative/big ideas and the ritual practices of the holiday

You know the story of פֶּסַח and you know the rituals that we do to celebrate פֶּסַח. Now it's time to make some connections.

connect the dots.png

Connect the holiday narrative with the season/timing of the holiday

Passover in Hebrew is פֶּסַח (Pesach). פֶּסַח is also called חַג הָאָבִיב (Chag Ha'aviv) or the Spring festival since Passover always falls in the spring. Spring is the beginning of new life. Flowers and trees begin to grow and bloom again after a long, dark winter and the world seems to be re-born. When the Israelites were freed from Egypt it was a little like they were re-born also. They had been slaves for hundreds of years and were now a free people. 

In Hebrew, Egypt is called מִצְרַיִם. According to the text on Jewish mysticism, the Zohar, the name מִצְרַיִם comes from the Hebrew word m’tzarim, which means “narrow straits” (mi, “from,” tzar, “narrow” or “tight”). When God took us out of מִצְרַיִם, God freed us from a narrow place of limited opportunities, tight control, and narrow-mindedness, where movement was very limited. Then, like the blossoming flower from a tiny seed, we were born into a vast wilderness with endless possibilities.

Use appropriate holiday vocabulary in proper context and demonstrate understanding of their meanings

You've learned a whole bunch of Hebrew words for פּוּרִים. You know the names of פּוּרִים in Hebrew, the names of the symbols and the פּוּרִים greetings. When you speak about פּוּרִים with your family and friends, can you use all of these Hebrew words? Here are some of the Hebrew words you know related to פּוּרִים:

Holiday Names

פֶּסַח - Passover

חַג הָאָבִיב - The Spring Festival

Holiday Greetings

חַג שָׂמֵחַ - Happy Holiday

Holiday Symbols

כּוֹס יַיִן - Cup of Wine

מַצָּה - Matzah
מָרוֹר - Bitter Herb

כַּרְפַּס - Green Vegetable

חֲרֹסֶת - Charoset

קְעָרָה - Seder Plate
סֵדֶר - Seder

הַגָּדָה -Haggadah

Read the b’rachot associated with the holiday symbols and ritual items along with selected liturgical pieces and will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the key words of those b'rachot and t'fillot

You're pretty good at blessings so for this unit we're going to focus on the Four Questions. The key words in the Four Questions are highlighted for you. When you think you're ready, take our Question Quiz to see how many of these keywords you actually know.

מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה מִכָּל הַלֵּילוֹת?

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין חָמֵץ וּמַצָּה, הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה – כֻּלּוֹ מַצָּה.

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין שְׁאָר יְרָקוֹת – הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה מָרוֹר.

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אֵין אָנוּ מַטְבִּילִין אֲפִילוּ פַּעַם אֶחָת – הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה שְׁתֵּי פְעָמִים.

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין בֵּין יוֹשְׁבִין וּבֵין מְסֻבִּין – הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה כֻּלָּנוּ מְסֻבִּין.

Question Quiz.png

Take the Question Quiz

Listen to the Four Questions below and try to sing along.

Listen to Dayeinu below and try to sing along.

Categorize holiday rituals as mitzvah or minhag

Since you already know what a מִצְוָה and a מִנְהָג are, now we can think about some of the פֶּסַח rituals and decide if they are a מִצְוָה or a מִנְהָג. Here's a hint for deciding what's a מִצְוָה: Most mitzvot have a blessing that includes the words, "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ", which means, "You make us holy through your commandments and command us to..."

מִנְהָג

Custom

מִצְוָה

Commandment

PlayNow.png

Draw conclusions about the values associated with each holiday based on the holiday narrative and ritual practices

Think about the story of פֶּסַח and the פֶּסַח rituals that you've learned about. What values do they teach us? For example: Maybe the Four Questions are supposed to teach us about the value of "curiosity." What conclusions can you draw about the values that might be associated with פּוּרִים based on the story and rituals?

Middot Chart.jpg
 

Enduring Understandings: Students will understand that...

  • Israel is the Jewish homeland and has been for 4,000 years

  • Israel is a vibrant democracy in a troubled region

  • Israel is an ancient land and a high-tech giant

Essential Questions:

What do you think?

  • How is Israel both a Jewish state and a democratic state?

  • How can Israel be both a homeland for the Jews and a welcoming country to all peoples?

  • How is Israel's diversity a source of strength?

Provide examples of how Israel made the desert bloom

Take a look at these two pictures.

This picture was taken over 100 years ago. In April 11, 1909, the first Israeli pioneers gathered on one of the Mediterranean’s bare beaches to choose plots of land for their new homes. Each member’s name was written on a sea shell, and one by one the 66 Jewish families received their own portion of the Holy Land. And thus, the building of the “first Hebrew city” was underway.

This is a picture of modern Tel Aviv - the same place as the first picture! More than half of Israel is desert. It's hard to believe all that Israel has created in that desert. Today, Tel Aviv is Israel's second most populated city and is the economic and technological center of the country. 

When Israel declared independence 50 years ago, the bulk of this land was a desolate expanse of desert, far from the cities of Tel Aviv or Jerusalem. David Ben-Gurion, the father of the modern Jewish state, urged his fellow Israelis to make the desert bloom. All it lacked, he said, was Jews and water. 

"The Negev [region in the south] is our nation's cradle, the state's vulnerable point and its great hope," the nation's first prime minister said.

"To make the desert bloom," as Ben-Gurion had put it, became a challenge and a measure of what this tiny state could accomplish, to transform the biblical homeland into a modern nation-state.

Describe three ethnic groups in Israel including their music, customs, foods and how they came to be in Israel.

There are dozens of different ethnicities and religions that make up the population of Israel. About two-thirds of the population was born in Israel. All other Israelis come from over 70 different countries. Most Israeli Jews live a lifestyle similar to western Europeans and North Americans. Here are some other facts about diversity in Israel:

 

  • Israel's population is about 75 percent Jewish

  • Over 15 percent of Israelis are Arab Muslims, and approximately 7 percent are Christians, Druze, and Bedouin.

  • About 250,000 Bedouins, an Arab nomadic people, reside in Israel. With the educational opportunities offered in Israel, illiteracy rates among Bedouins have fallen a remarkable 70 percent within a generation.

  • There are 1.8 million non-Jews in Israel–making up about 24 percent of Israel’s population.

  • Israel officially recognizes 15 distinct religious groups. Each religious community regulates its own rules about marriage, divorce and wills.

  • Christians in Israel make up 2.1 percent of the population and increased from 34,000 in 1948 to 154,000 in 2009. Israel is the only Middle Eastern country in which the Christian population has grown in the last half century.

  • The Israeli city of Haifa is home to the Baha’i world headquarters. The Baha’i faith is an independent religion that arose in Persia in the mid-19th century.

What can you discover about some of Israel's ethnic groups?

Describe what a democratic state is and some of the elements that make Israel a democratic state.

Israel is a democracy. A democracy is a type of government where the people can take part in the decisions that affect the way their community is run. In Israel, everyone has an equal voice whether they are Jewish, Christian, Muslim or any other religion. And democracy in Israel isn't just about voting. Israelis are free to live as they wish and believe whatever they want.